To nerve transfer or muscle substitution?

This 39-year old lady developed weaken pucker function on the right side 20 months ago accompanied with slight drooping of the oral commissure on the same side. The symptom aggravated until 6 month ago and remains stable since then. There is no change in the scope of...

Does Full Dental Smile Have to Be with a Bulky Face?

We would like to present a gracilis case for your consideration. This patient is a 40-year old lady who developed facial palsy after acoustic neuroma extirpation in 2007. She had facial reanimation with gracilis by 5 in 2010. The size of her muscle was sized 4cm in...

Do we want grading systems for everything?

We are now at a point where technology can offer immense opportunities to rapidly analyse data in real time and provide and objective output. However, the objective output is still subjectively interpreted by the clinician and the patient. The proliferation of...

Progressive bilateral peripheral facial palsy

Progressive bilateral peripheral facial palsy L.P.H. van de Rijt1 and K.J.A.O. Ingels1 Department of otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands A 60-year old woman was referred to our center for a progressive right-sided...

Timing of pediatric reanimation?

Timing of pediatric reanimation? When is the best age to consider facial reanimation in non-progressive congenital facial palsy? Many centers will perform facial reanimation by free muscle transfer in children at an early age (eg. 4 years). Is this the ideal age? The...